Friday, December 27, 2019
Brandi Ortiz English IV McCraw 2/24/15 Harper Lee: The One Hit Wonder Ã¢â¬Å"Mockingbirds donÃ¢â¬â¢t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t eat up peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s gardens, donÃ¢â¬â¢t nest in corncribs, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why itÃ¢â¬â¢s a sin to kill a mockingbirdÃ¢â¬ (Lee. 72) Many teens all over the world have read or heard this iconic quote, whether by force because it was in the schools curriculum or for my fellow book worms it is a great novel to just lose yourself in. To Kill a Mockingbird, winner of the prestigious Pulitzer Prize and several other literary awards was written by Harper Lee in nineteen sixty. Famed author Nelle Harper Lee was born on the twenty-eighth of April, nineteen twenty-six inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Lee was a daughter to an ill mother and Truman living with family friends after being abandoned by his own parents. It is believed by The Telegraph journal that LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s past helped influence her growing interest in English Literature. To help feed her cultivating lust with such literature, after Lee graduated in 1944, she went to the all-female Huntingdon College in Montgomery. It is said that Lee Ã¢â¬Å"stood apart from the other students.Ã¢â¬ (Biography.com) Rather than caring about fashion or dating, Lee focused on her studies and her own personal writing. Throughout LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s college career, in Montgomery, she was a member of the literary honor society. After transferring to the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, Lee was characterized to be Ã¢â¬Å"a loner and an individualist.Ã¢â¬ (Biography.com) Using her new title as motivation, Lee pursued her interest in writing by contributing to the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s newspaper and also a humor magazine, the Rammer Jammer, which she later became the editor of. Sadly after Lee was accepted into the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s law school she was forced, if one may say, to leave her post as editor of the Rammer Jammer. After much soul seeking and countless heart-to-heart co nversations with her family, Lee dropped all interest in law and moved to New York City to follow her dream to become a writer. In nineteen forty-nine, a twenty-three year old Harper Lee arrived in New York City where she worked for the British Overseas Air
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Explore the ways in which McEwan presents obsession in Enduring Love The theme of obsession is found in many different forms in Enduring Love. McEwan uses language and the presentation of the characters to explore the many different types of obsession. The most obvious obsession in the novel is JedÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with Joe. As a reader, we find this perhaps the most disturbing because of the intensity with which it is presented. At the opening of the novel, immediately after the accident, Joe walks down the hill to inspect LoganÃ¢â¬â¢s body and is closely followed by Jed. McEwan uses language to great effect to convey JedÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with religion and JedÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue to show his eagerness to pray. Ã¢â¬ËI mean you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to believe inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦JedÃ¢â¬â¢s strange behaviour towards Joe intensifies with his religious fervour. McEwan demonstrates this in their second meeting. We begin to understand JedÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning and motivation for needing Joe to pray. Ã¢â¬ËThe purpose is to bring you to the Christ that is in you and that is youÃ¢â¬â¢ Placing emphasis on the word Ã¢â¬ËpurposeÃ¢â¬â¢ shows JedÃ¢â¬â¢s intent and ultimately the motivation behind his pursual of Joe. In a sense, Jed is using his beliefs as justification for his obsession. McEwan displays JedÃ¢â¬â¢s need for Joe through the quotation Ã¢â¬ËHe was watching my face with a kind of hunger, as desperation.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËHungerÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdesperationÃ¢â¬â¢ give the reader a sense of the insatiable passion that Jed feels for Joe. McEwan also presents JedÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession through the use of letters. These act rather like a soliloquy would and we are able to see the character of Jed without JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s perception as the narrator. The letters are perhaps the most disturbing part of the obsession as McEwan reveals JedÃ¢â¬â¢s raw emotion. Ã¢â¬ËJoe, Joe, JoeÃ¢â¬ ¦.IÃ¢â¬â¢ll confess, I covered five sheets of paper with your name.Ã¢â¬â¢ The use of repetition emphasises Joe as the subject of JedÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession and the action of writing his name over sheet of paper is a sign of immaturity. Ã¢â¬ËDoes it horrify that I can see through you so easily?Ã¢â¬â¢ A rhetorical question appeals directly to the reader as we see events through JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes and reveal an insidious side to JedÃ¢â¬â¢sShow MoreRelatedThe Obsessive Nature of Desire Presented in The Great Gatsby, Othello and Enduring Love2786 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesObsession is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"an unhealthy and compulsive pre occupation with something or someoneÃ¢â¬ (1), and is a prominent theme (in) The Great Gatsby, Enduring Love and Othello. For example, in all three, there is a great desire to obtain things which are unattainable, and in turn this fuels their obsession and causes it to intensify. Furthermore, the act of being obsessive is a common human characteristic, which enforces the fact that obsession is a key element throughout all the texts. Othello hasRead MoreWhat Is Love?1080 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTwelfth Night is love. The notion of love is important to the plot as many of the characters are driven by love. There are multiple forms of love depicted throughout the play; each character represents a different type of love. Viola displays a patient, sincere, and enduring love for Orsion as well as a deep familial love for her brother. Sebastian and Antonio share a special bond which could be classified as brotherly love. These two bonds can be seen as the most real forms of love depicted in TwelfthRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWall-Paper). The obsession of the wallpaper was to first, evade her situation which could only regress her image of her inner self. I expect everyone does or will do this, become focused on a different issue as the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s response to continue living. I, for example, became fixated on the cleanness of my teeth when a loved one went into the hospital. Due to her mental health, our narrator cannot carry out the tasks asked of a domestic housewife. She has a newborn child who she loves dearly, yet canÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages(6). The obsession of the wallpaper was to first, evade her situation which could only regress her image of her inner self. I expect everyone does or will do this, become focused on a different issue as the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s response to continue living. I, for example, became fixated on the cleanness of my teeth when I was little and my mother went into the hospital. Due to her mental health, our narrator cannot carry out the tasks asked of a domestic housewife. She has a newborn child who she loves dearly,Read MorePoes Heart Essay1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthemes such as love, time, death and the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"oneness.Ã¢â¬ Poe often expressed these themes according to events that he had experienced, and some of his themes intertwined with others. Take for instance, his love for beauty and perfection played a major role in his concept of oneness, or state of absolute fulfillment. However in his short story, The Tell-Tale Heart, Poe effectively explores the power of guilt, and leads his readers through a cynical plot to murder while enduring the struggle toRead MoreAnalysis Of `` Annabel Lee By Edgar Allan Poe1235 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBut we loved with a love that was more than love (Poe Line 9). Love is one of the most important things to have in life, whether it is with family, friends, or that special someone, but that does not mean it will be perfect because everyone has problems. Love can be complicated; it may not be defined so easily or fit the normal standard of love. Sometimes love comes with a desire or an obsession. The inspiration of Annabel Lee by Edgar Allan Poe was inspired by the women that had passed awayRead MoreCase Study: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Ã¢â¬â the Case of Bess1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdifferentiated by acts of compulsiveness or continual thoughts of obsession. Persistent thoughts, images, and desires are characteristics of obsessions. These thoughts, images, and desires are not typically willed into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind as they are often senseless, illogical, aggressive, taboo, etc. Compulsive acts are unrealistic and repetitive behaviors. The fear of contamination with germs, dirt, or grease is the most common obsession, which leads to thoroughgoing or compulsive cleansing rituals. ReligionRead MoreMind and Haml et1132 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagespossibilitiesÃ¢â¬ . Through the creation of a character who emulates a variety of different themes, such as revenge, realisation of reality and the questioning of humanity, we can see the different possibilities within Hamlet as an Ã¢â¬Å"admirable textÃ¢â¬ with enduring human value. Furthermore, the emotional journey of Hamlet and his progression of madness provide further opportunity for differing interpretations. Hamlet connects with audiences from a variety of socio-historic contexts primarily due to its addressRead MoreThe Sorrows Of Young Werther And Wordsworth s The Prelude1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLotte. The philosopher loves the great of nature , thus the advantages his loves to nature to the woman he loves through his text while going to see the woman he adores. In my opinion, I think this is a great idea to use his loves to nature to his own feeling. In that passage he will get two things he loves in one point and that very interesting w ay to expresses his moods to the reader. This have a great expression on the reader to feel his love to nature and to the woman he loves. The reader will feelRead MoreImprisoned for Love Essay562 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Robbie has been falsely accused and imprisoned and Cecilia has abandoned the family altogether to prove her enduring love for him. After three years Robbie leaves prison to join the army and exonerate himself for the crime he never committed. Briony does not go on to Cambridge but instead becomes a lowly, nameless nurse performing monotonous tasks like cleaning bedpans and tidying wards under the rule of a tyrannical nurse. Once the war moves closer to London she can be found taking care of Robbie
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Discuss about theMarket Environment Analysisfor Open Family. Answer: Industry Overview and Service Description The company, Open Family is an old organization that is into operations for more than 30 years. It was established in the year 1978. The company was founded in Melbourne and since then it has increased its area of operation in the entire country. The organization has various services and primarily it is focused to improve the condition of youth in Australia (Cavalcante Ulhoi, 2011). The company has various community development programs. The website of the company says: For more than 30 years, Open Family Australia has been providing a range of Outreach services to young people experiencing high complex needs The age group of the client of Open Family is the age group of 12 to 25 years. Over 80% of these young people are in this situation due to family break down or family conflict (Walker, 2011). This issue goes across all socio-economic groups and may result in homelessness, criminal activity, drug abuse, mental health problems and disengagement from school or employment. The industry segment in which Open Australia operates is a niche industry. Most of the players that operate in this industry are government organization or government sponsored organization. The industry is not highly competitive in nature and most of the players in the industry would depend on funds received from various corporations (Reidenbach Robin, 2013). This is the reason that the organization like Open Australia would often conduct the fund raising events. In fact, it is believed that close to 25% of the funding for the organization in this industry segment comes from corporate gifts and grants. It is expected that the funding from corporate gifts and grants would increase further for Open Australia and other organizations in this industry segment. A snapshot of the funding of Open Australia for the year 2012 can be shown as: Source: https://www.openfamily.com.au/images/Infographics/HowWeAreFunded2012.jpg The various local governments could be considered as the major players in this industry segment. There are various organizations in Australia that provides alcohol and drug control service. In December 2011, Open Family Australia merged with like-minded youth organization, Whitelion. In the seven months since, both organizations have worked to come together with a particular focus on achieving efficiencies in back office areas such as finance, HR, marketing and fundraising. There are various other organizations in the industry that are the direct competitors of the company. However, the nature of the industry suggests that different players in the market should collaborate together to deliver maximum benefits to consumers (Lin, 2016). The organizations operating in this industry segment would often work under the guidance of the strategies and policies developed by the government at the national and at the state level. It is expected that various players in the private sector would c ontinue to provide the funding to the organizations in this industry so that the life of the Australian youth could improve. Companys Micro and Macro Environment It would be correct to say that the macro environment factors and the microenvironment factors are critical elements for any business. Typically, it is the combination of macro environmental factors and microenvironment factors that would be the basis of the future strategy of the organization (Leeuwis Aarts, 2011). The macro environment and microenvironment factors that affects the business operations of Open Family can be discussed as: Macro Environment Factors The macro environment factors are the factors that would usually impact the industry as a whole. The key macro environment factors for Open Family can be discussed as: Political and Legal: The political and legal factors are key macro environment factors. The political and legal factors are positive for the organizations that work for the social cause. The government of Australia has always supported the organizations in this industry segment. It is expected that the government would continue to support the firms like Open Family that take the steps to help Australian youth (Lin, 2016). Social: The society of Australia has always encouraged the people and organizations to come forward and to help others. It is expected that the social factors would remain positive in this sector. The youth of Australia that takes the wrong way need the support of people and the Australian society is willing to help the youth. Economical: The operations of the organizations operating in this industry would depend a lot on the available funding. The funding would in turn depend on the economic factors. The corporations and people would be ready to fund more when the economic conditions of the country are strong. Technological: The technological factors would ensure that the operations are optimized and the youth get the help in an effective and efficient manner. The key technological factors that have affected the operations of the firms like Open family would include the Information Systems like ERP (Employee Resource Planning) products. Cultural: The cultural factors are a key support function for the organizations like Open Family. Australia is a developed country and the society of the country is an open society. In general, Australians have a helping culture and people are ready to help other. People are especially willing to help the youth of the country. Microenvironment Factors Unlike macro economic factors, the microeconomic directly impact the firm. The microeconomic could be considered as the factors that are specific to any firm or the factors that are internal for the firm. The key microeconomic factors for Open Family can be discussed as: Suppliers: Open Family has a number of suppliers that helps the organizations for various products and materials. However, most of the suppliers are the partners of the company that provides funding to the organization (Minichilli, 2012). It is expected that the suppliers or the partners would continue to have a critical role in the growth and development of Open Family. Public/ Society at large: It appears that the public and society is one of the key stakeholders for Open Family. The public sentiments and the perception of the people in the society also have a direct impact on the operations of the company (Kaufmann, 2013). The public and especially the youth of the country is one of the most important microeconomic factors for the business operations of Open Family. Employees: It would be correct to say that the success of the company depends a lot on the performance of the employees. The management of Open Family believes that employees are one of the biggest assets for the organization (Vaccaro Jansen, 2012). Employees influence the organizational strategies and policies of Open Family. Intermediaries: There are various intermediaries that affect the business operations of the company. These intermediaries include the organizations in private and public sector. Some of these intermediaries are the small firms that help Open Family to arrange fund raising events (Minichilli, 2012). The intermediaries may not be a critical or important microeconomic factor, as intermediaries do not affect the business operations of the company in a direct manner. Market Segmentation One of the basic or the first step of any marketing activity is market segmentation. The targeting and the positioning strategy follow the market segmentation. Simply defined, Market segmentation is the process of dividing a broad consumer or business market, normally consisting of existing and potential customers, into sub-groups of consumers (known as segments) based on some type of shared characteristics (Flint Woodruff, 2012). There are various basis or factors of segmentation. The key factors of market segmentation are demographics, income level, geographic, psychographic and behavioral. The variables involved in the type of segmentation can be discussed as: Segmentation basis Segmentation Type Variables involved Consumer market Geographic Region, population growth rate Consumer market Demographic Age, ethnicity, gender, income, family status, education, nationality Consumer market Psychographic Values, perception, attitude, lifestyle, activities Consumer market Behavioral Brand loyalty, consumer preferences, usage rate Business market Type of Customer Value chain of industry, product lifecycle, size of organization, type of industry Business market Buying behavior Suppliers involved, order size, usage patterns Open Family use combination of more than one segmentation variable to do the segmentation. The two key segmentation variables used by Open Family are demographic and psychographic (Carlsen Andersson, 2010). The segmentation variable for Open Family can be shown as: Demographic Age, ethnicity, gender, income, family status, education, nationality Psychographic Values, perception, attitude, lifestyle, activities Open Family has defined the values for each of the segmentation variables. It helps the organization to put a boundary around is targeted audience and this in turn enables Open Family to have effective targeting strategy in place. The detailed segmentation for Open Family based on the above segmentation variables can be discussed as: Segmentation Variable Volume Age 12 to 25 years Ethnicity Australian (geographic) Gender Male Female Income Low income group and Mid income group Education Low Values Perception These are the people that are mainly low on self-esteem. These are the people who believe that nothing is good in the life. Based on above analysis, the four segments that Open Family should consider for targeting are: Marketing Segmentation Attributes Teenage (Male Female) Age 12 to 18 years Youth (Male Female) Age 18 to 24 years Low Income family group Parents with monthly average income of less than $500 Less educated family group Parents with educational qualification less than graduation The above basis of market segmentation enables Open Family to set a basis of the targeting and the positioning strategy. The market segmentation enables Open Family to divide the target audience into number of groups. The management of Open Family realizes that different targeting groups can have different expectation (Kumar Zia, 2016). Therefore, it is important that the organization addresses the expectations of these groups individually. For example, the perception and the expectations of the youth group that does not have home would be different that the perception and the expectations of the youth group that is alcoholic and under the influence of drugs. It would be correct to say that the market segmentation acts as the basis for management of Open family to reach out to Australian youth. The entire philosophy of segmentation, targeting and positioning can be shown as: Market Targeting and Consumer Profile Once the segmentation is done, the next thing in line is targeting. Simply defined, Targeting or target marketing entails deciding which potential customer segments the company will focus on. The entire objective of targeting is to increase the relevance for brands. With effective targeting strategy, Open Family would be able to develop good rapport with its customer base. The targeting strategy would be a way forward for the company to reach out to consumers. One of the key and widely used targeting strategies for Open Family is to increase the reach through awareness (Schlegelmilch, 2016). The company has invested a lot to increase the awareness level of Australian youth. The company has run several programs with the objective to establish better connection with Australian youth. It is important and it is recommended that Open Family should also have a dedicated targeting strategy based on social media. The social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook is the fastest way to reac h out to consumers and it is suggested that Open Family should increase its presence over these networks to target the potential users in the market. Based on the above discussion, one of the targeting profile for Open Family can be discussed as: Marketing Segmentation Attributes Teenage (Male Female) Age 12 to 18 years This is the group that is prone to drug use or any other addiction. Therefore, it is important to increase the information and education level of people as soon as they enter the teen stage. Differentiation and Positioning The segmentation and the positioning act as the basis of differentiation or positioning. Simply defined, positioning refers to the place that a brand occupies in the mind of the customer and how it is distinguished from products from competitors. Primarily, it is about "the place a brand occupies in the mind of its target audience". Positioning is now a regular marketing activity or strategy. Different brands and the organizations in the industry can have different positioning strategy (Knutsen Brock, 2014). Open family uses the positioning strategy of reliability to reach out to consumers. The organization has created a niche in the market with its positioning strategy for reliability. It is expected that the company would continue to improve its position in the market. It is also important that Open Family should also create focus on core competency or competitive advantage through its differentiation or positioning strategy. Generally the differentiation could be achieved as prod uct differentiation or cost leadership. It is important that Open Family should develop a service differentiation through its reliable services. Open Family believes that its customers should be the advocates of the company (Wright Sturdy, 2012). It means that the youth of the country should spread the word about the various programs that are conducted by Open family. Conclusion The above paper discusses the market environment analysis for Open Family. The organization has various services and primarily it is focused to improve the condition of youth in Australia. The company has run several programs with the objective to establish better connection with Australian youth and it is expected that the company would continue to have a great impact on Australian youth. With the above discussion it can be said that the organization should consider both internal and external factors before developing or before implementing any organizational strategy. The macro economic factors would be mainly external in nature and micro economic factors would be mainly internal in nature. The above paper also discusses the segmentation, targeting and positioning strategy of organization. The segmentation and the positioning act as the basis of differentiation or positioning. It is recommended that Open Family should use segmentation, targeting and positioning as the basis of the marketing mix. There are four key elements of marketing mix. These are product, price, place and promotion. It is recommended that these elements of marketing mix should be based on the segmentation, targeting and positioning strategies. References Carlsen, J., Andersson, T. D., Ali-Knight, J., Jaeger, K., Taylor, R. (2010). Festival management innovation and failure.International Journal of Event and Festival Management,1(2), 120-131. Cavalcante, S., Kesting, P., Ulhoi, J. (2011). Business model dynamics and innovation:(re) establishing the missing linkages.Management Decision,49(8), 1327-1342. Denizer, C., Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A. (2013). Good countries or good projects? Macro and micro correlates of World Bank project performance.Journal of Development Economics,105, 288-302. Minichilli, A., Zattoni, A., Nielsen, S., Huse, M. (2012). Board task performance: An exploration of micro?and macro?level determinants of board effectiveness.Journal of Organizational Behavior,33(2), 193-215. Flint, D., Woodruff, R. and Gardial, S. (2012). Exploring the Phenomenon of Customers Desired Value Change in a Business-to-Business Context.Journal of Marketing, 66(4), pp.102-117. Knutsen, W., Brock, K. (2014). Introductory essay: From a closed system to an open system: A parallel critical review of the intellectual trajectories of publicness and nonprofitness.Voluntas: International Journal Of Voluntary Nonprofit Organizations, 25(5), 1113-1131 Kumar, N.S. and Zia, M., 2016. A Three Dimensional Vertical Differentiation Model: Implications for Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning.Targeting and Positioning (April 3, 2016). Retrieved from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2758430 Leeuwis, C., Aarts, N. (2011). Rethinking communication in innovation processes: creating space for change in complex systems.Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension,17(1), 21-36. Lin, M. H., Hu, J., Tseng, M. L., Chiu, A. S., Lin, C. (2016). Sustainable development in technological and vocational higher education: Balanced scorecard measures with uncertainty. Journal of Cleaner Production. Schlegelmilch, B.B., 2016. Segmenting Targeting and Positioning in Global Markets. InGlobal Marketing Strategy(pp. 63-82). Springer International Publishing. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-26279-6_4 Reidenbach, R.E. and Robin, D.P., 2013. Some Initial Steps Toward Improving the Measurement of Ethical Evaluations of Marketing Activities. InCitation Classics from the Journal of Business Ethics(pp. 315-328). Springer Netherlands. Walker, R. M., Damanpour, F., Devece, C. A. (2011). Management innovation and organizational performance: The mediating effect of performance management. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(2), 367-386. Wright, C., Sturdy, A., Wylie, N. (2012). Management innovation through standardization: Consultants as standardizers of organizational practice. Research Policy, 41(3), 652-662. Vaccaro, I. G., Jansen, J. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., Volberda, H. W. (2012). Management innovation and leadership: The moderating role of organizational size. Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), 28-51.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Socio-culture Essay In a world where evolution of change is a social norm, we must stay informed of new developments that will affect our attitudes about how we should live our lives. With the proliferation of new developments of how to live better from books, newspapers, magazines, and news stations, people must discern what developments are useful to their situation. Socio-culture factors influence our decisions and behaviors. It is also a factor of how healthy we live our lives which ultimately can determine how long we will live.Our demographic structure is an important factor on how long we will live. Demographics such as age, gender, income, and education, effects how we live, what we do, the resources available to us, and what motivates us. Ã¢â¬Å"Life expectancy changes as one gets older. By the time a child reaches their first year, their chances of living longer increase. By the time of late adulthood, ones chances of survival to a very old age are quite good.Ã¢â¬ (Rosenberg)Younger people are more apt to live a carefree lifestyle because their life expectancy rate is the highest among all age groups. Although they may be well informed on health issues the 18-24 year old age group has the highest rate of individuals without health insurance. They frequent more fast food restaurants, engage in irresponsible behaviors, reckless driving, recreational drugs, sports activities which all affect their short and long term health.By the time we become middle-aged adults we begin to become more health conscious and our lifestyles change accordingly. Exercise, healthy eating habits, including low-fat, non-fat, and no cholesterol products become a major concern. Although middle-aged people desire to live healthier lifestyles, they tend to be overwhelmed by distractions of everyday life like careers and family, which affects their behaviors. Time becomes an issue and exercise becomes a distant second to these distractions. Healthy eating is substituted by convenience of fast food restaurants.The way we live our lives in our youth affects our health in our older years. Exercise, healthy eating, drugs, smoking, and other behaviors all affect how healthy our lives will be in our nest years. Elderly individuals are concerned with maintaining healthy lifestyle which has been affected by their living habits in the years prior.Education plays a big role in life expectancy. It determines our income, our place of residence, and the market which we shop. This also Ã¢â¬Å"Life expectancy is higher in high-income countries than in all but a few low- and middle-income countries.Ã¢â¬ (Rosenberg)Ã¢â¬Å"In our research, my colleagues and I found that an Asian way of eating (predominantly fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes and soy products) and living (moderate exercise, stress management and strong communities) may stop and even reverse the progression of coronary heart disease as well as prostate cancer.Ã¢â¬ (Ornish) Increases our health conscious habits raise a s we become more educated on the long term effects of unhealthy eating. Educated people tend to be more aware of the trends as they read more, they are exposed to healthy living behaviors through resources they have available to them, and they also tend to have more money which affords. They tend to research and seek out new trends in healthy living. They are also taught about health, and healthy living lifestyles in college courses.Ã¢â¬Å"Race and ethnicity continue to be salient predictors of well-being in American society. On average, non-Hispanic whites and Asians experience advantages in health, education, and economic status relative to blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians.Ã¢â¬ (Economic) Although race shows a correlation between healthy living and life expectancy, due to an increase in education and healthy lifestyles, the gap of non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics life expectancy is continuing to close.There is definitely a direct correlation between health and life expectancy. Our lifestyles determine whether we will have heart disease, cancer, how long we will live in a healthy mental state. These determinants of age, income, race, geographic location, and education are directly related to healthy lifestyles. They also show a correlation between one another. Income determines where we will live, while education determines how much income we will possess. Age can also represent our income and education level.Ã¢â¬Å"Socio-culture forces are influences in a society and its culture that result in changes in attitudes, beliefs, norms, customs, and lifestyles.Ã¢â¬ (Pride) These forces can correlate negatively or positively to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s healthy living and thus how long they will live in this world. As the world continues an upward trend of awareness of healthy living necessities, life expectancy rates continue to rise. In the United States women have a life expectancy of 80 years of age while men have a life expectancy of 74 years of age. This trend continues to increase as we learn and continue changes in our lifestyles.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
How to Begin Your Career in Architecture As in any profession, the steps to be an architect seem simple, involve a lot of hard work, and can be filled with fun. Simply put, becoming an architect involves education, experience, and examinations. Your journey from student to professional architect will move through several stages. You begin by choosing the right school for you. Step 1: School Some people become interested in designing and building things while still in high school is a great place to start to become an architect. Since the 19th century when architecture became a profession in the United States, you have to go to college to be an architect. This is the 21st century. But, many paths can lead to a career in architecture. In fact, you can become an architect even if you earn a bachelors degree from a school without an architecture program. But its a little more complicated. What is called higher education comes at different levels - undergraduate and graduate. You can earn an undergraduate degree in most anything - English, History, Engineering - and then be admitted to a graduate program in architecture to earn a professional degree in architecture. So, you dont even have to decide if you want to be an architect until after you receive a bachelors degree. Going this route, a professional masters degree in architecture (M.Arch) may take an additional three years beyond your four-year degree. You can also become an architect with a professional undergraduate degree (B.Arch), which in many architecture schools takes five years to complete. Yes, its a five-year program, and you only earn an undergraduate degree. A vital area of architectural study is the Design Studio, which is hands-on experience that consumes a lot of time. For students less interested in becoming an architect but still interested in architecture, most schools also offer NON-professional degrees in architecture - without the Design Studio. It turns out there are plenty of opportunities for architecture majors as well as for professional architects. Choosing the school that best fits your needs is the first step. If you possibly can, begin your career in architecture while still in school. Consider joining the American Institute of Architecture Students (AIAS). Look for a part-time job related to architecture or design. Do clerical work, drafting, or crowdsourcing for an architect or designer. Consider volunteering for an emergency relief organization or charitable program that provides design services for those in need. Whether you are paid or not, the experience will give you the opportunity to develop your skills and build a strong portfolio. Hopefully youve chosen a school with an active alumni. Does your university sponsor alumni homecomings, bringing your schools graduates back on campus? Get your face out there among the established architects - whether these gatherings are called networking opportunities or meet and greet gatherings, mingle with the people that you will forever be associated with as alumnus of the same college. Alumni are also a great source for externships. Usually short-term and unpaid, externships can do a number of things for your career. Externships can (1) kickstart the experience section of your resume; (2) help you test the waters, observing a real work environment, without the pressure and stress of having to produce a product like a project or paper; (3) allow you to shadow a professional architect for a day or work week, getting a feel for the professional side of architecture; and (4) help you determine your comfort level in a small or large architectural firm. Louisiana State University calls their externship program a chance to Get out of town! The difference between an externship and an internship is found in the name - an extern is external to the workplace, and all expenses are usually the responsibility of the extern; an intern is internal to the organization and is often paid an entry-level wage. Step 2: Architecture Experience Yay! Youve graduated from college or graduate school. Most graduates work for several years as interns in a professional architectural firm before they take licensing exams and become registered architects. For help finding an entry-level position, visit the career center at your college. Also look to your professors for guidance. But, the term intern is on its way out.Ã The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB), the licensing organization for architects, is highly involved with helping architecture firms mold neophytes into architects ready to contribute to a practice. Before you can even apply to take the test to become a registered architect, you have to have experience. What used to be called the Intern Development Program (IDP) is now the Architectural Experience ProgramÃ¢â ¢ or AXPÃ¢â ¢.Ã A beginning professional needs 3,740 hours of experience before earning a professional license. AXP certification is a requirement for initial registration to sit for the licensing exams. These required hours are associated with nearly 100 tasksÃ - for example, Review shop drawings and submittals during construction for conformance with design intent. How do you log experience?Ã Now theres an app for thatÃ - My AXP App. How does NCARB help? Architecture firms are businesses and not schools - professional hours are best spent doing the business of architecture along with training new hires. NCARB helps the new graduate transition from being a student to becoming a professional without using some of a firms billable hours. Dr. Lee Waldrep, author of the Becoming an Architect book series, explains the value of this program when it was called IDP: In a recent discussion with an intern-architect a few years out of school, she confessed that while architecture school prepared her to think and design, it did not sufficiently prepare her to work in an architectural office. She further admitted that IDP, with its training areas, simply lists out what you need to do. Step 3: Licensing Exams In the United States and Canada, architects must take and pass the Architect Registration Examination (ARE) to receive a professional license in architecture. The ARE exams are rigorous - some students take extra coursework to prepare. A new set of exams, ARE 5.0, was implemented in November 2016. Although the tests are completely online, you cannot use your own computer. NCARB, the licensing organization that creates the test questions, works with Prometric test centers who administers the exams. Study for and taking the exams are usually accomplished during the AXP experience-gathering phase of a professional career. This can be the most stressful part of the process of becoming an architect - generally, youre not getting paid very much (because you are not a peak contributor to the architecture firm), preparing and taking exams is stressful, and all this comes at a time when your personal life is also in transition. Remember, however, that you are not the first person to go thro ugh these times. Step 4: Building a Profession After completing the ARE, some early-career professionals find jobs at the same firms where they first gained experience. Others seek employment elsewhere, sometimes in careers that are peripheral to architecture itself. Some architects start their own small firms after licensure. They may go it alone or team up with ex-classmates or co-workers. A strong career network will pave the way toward success. Many architects begin their careers in the public sector. State, local, and federal governments all hire architects. Generally, the jobs (and incomes) are stable, control and creativity may be limited, but your personal life that may have been put on hold can be reawakened. Lastly, its important to remember that many successful architects dont come into their own until they are into their 60s. When most people are set to retire, the architect is just beginning. Be in it for the long haul. Summary: Becoming an Architect Stage One: Complete an accredited professional architecture program at the undergranduate or graduate levelStage Two: On-the-job experienceStage Three: Pass the licensing exams - only then can you call yourself an architect.Stage Four: Follow your dream Sources Externships, LSU College of Art Design, http://design.lsu.edu/architecture/student-resources/externships/ [accessed April 29, 2016]History of the AXP,Ã National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, https://www.ncarb.org/about/history-ncarb/history-axp [accessed May 31, 2018]Architectural Experience Program Guidelines, National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, PDF at https://www.ncarb.org/sites/default/files/AXP-Guidelines.pdf [accessed May 31, 2018]Becoming an Architect by Lee W. Waldrep, Wiley Sons, 2006, p. 195
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Biological approach to personality - Essay Example The biography of Gretchen Wilson may start out as sad story, but her life evolved into country music phenomena since then. (Kassidy Emerson) Since then to date, Wilson has been performing as s singer where she appears before spectators in many places, singing and dancing, appearing to look very social, and entertaining her audiences. Thus, to my own point of view, she is extraversion based on Hans Eyssenck's theory of Personality. (Robert Plomin) has shown that many environmental measures in psychology show genetic influence and that genetic factors can mediate associations between environmental measures and developmental outcomes. This theory can have it roots from the evidence of Wilson's history, where it is categorically seen that she was influenced by the environmental factor which led to being moving and spending night in places away from home, while later, environment factor led her to becomes a musician, where she ought to entertains people. Some children adapt quickly and easily to family daily routines and get along well with their siblings. Others, especially highly active, intense and "prickly" children have a more difficult time adjusting to everyday demands, and their interactions with parents and siblings may lead to friction and stress. Consider how an active, impulsive child can bother an older sibling who is trying to complete a school project, or how a distractible child who is low in persistence can frustrate parents' efforts to get him to complete his homework or to finish a household chore. Thus, it is noteworthy to point out that Wilson does not inherit her behavior from her parents, nor they teach her such manners. But she was totally influenced by the condition she found herself shortly after her father could not be seen, as he skipped from his family. While her mother lacks all the capabilities whatsoever to shoulder her responsibilities. As such, she began going ups and downs, looking for all possible dimensions to earn her living. To this end, she found herself in the Musical Industry.References Carl Gustav Jung, 1934, what is Personality, http://wilderdom.com/personality/L5-1WhatIsPersonality.html Kassidy Emerson, August 15, 2006, The Biography of Gretchen Wilson, A red-neck woman who is proud of her heritage, http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/50653/the_biography_of_gretchen_wilson.html Eysenck's model of personality (P-E-N, Hans Eysenck, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Eysenck#Eysenck.27s_model_of_personality_.28P-E-N.29 Robert Plomin,
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Why the North won the American Civil War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words
Why the North won the American Civil War - Essay Example To be objective, it is very important to take into account not only military events, but the "roots of success" resulted in victory of the North. The analysis of the first set of reasons includes political, economic, social and industrial sphere and conditions which had a great influence on both parties1. 1. Manpower and resources. The strength of the North was that it remained the core of the nation. In contrast, the Southern states, separated form the Union, were perceived as the mutinous party. The conservative North, embodied social and political customs and tradition, represented a strong power and reliability for many American citizens. This psychological perception of the differences between the South and North strengthened the positions of the North as the custodian of peace and constancy. The social priorities were supported by economic development of the North which always plays a major role considered as the main indicator of future success or failure of a country. The main advantage of the North, which undoubtedly supported its victory, was the fact that the North had occupied a stronger position in the economic and political spheres of life. The North had started to dominate after the Constitution was adopted by all of the States in 1789, uniting the States into one nation. In a century, the North was considered as the political center of the nation and nobody doubted its superiority over the Southern part. . Of cause, there were some differences between the States which had been worked out through compromises, but it could not undermine the authority of the North. The main advantage of the North was its developing industry, which supported the rapid economic growth of this region, and manufacturing of ammunition so important for the North troops during the war. In contrast to agrarian South the level of the North economic development was higher and more stable. And when during the war time the south needed financing, "almost 60 per cent was derived from the issue of paper money, about 30 per cent from the sale of bonds, and less than 5 per cent from taxation (the remaining 5 percent from miscellaneous sources.) In contrast, the income of North in "13 per cent was raised by paper money, 62 per cent by bonds, and 21 per centby taxes (and 4 per cent by other means)"2 This financial data depicts the main advantage of the North, relied much more upon taxation and borrowing and less upon government notes as South did. It is a well known fact that industry is not influenced greatly by external environmental changes as the agriculture (droughts, bad harvest), and in this very case the positions of North were stronger, and resulted in accumulation of huge resources which South was not able to obtain. As industry in the North expanded it looked towards southern markets, rich with cash from the lucrative agricultural business, to buy the North's manufactured goods. However, it was often cheaper for the South to purchase the goods abroad. 2 1Richard N. Current, The History of Wisconsin Volume II. The Civil War Era, 1848- 1873. (Madison: The State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1976), 3. 2Gabor S. Boritt, ed. Why the Civil War Came
Sunday, November 17, 2019
What are the potential benefits and pitfalls in promoting a new cinema that places its emphasis on issues of identity and difference - Essay Example When motion pictures were first devised in the late 19th century, it was viewed as a medium for documentation of historical artefacts, in much the same way as still photographs were regarded. By the early 20th century the value of motion pictures as a form of entertainment and education was firmly established; however, it is only in the recent past, during the period of globalization, that the capability of film as a powerful tool for cultural dissemination has been recognized. Academic studies have turned to a determination of the effect of film in creating cross-cultural bridges between societies. A recent genre of film has been developed that explored the clashes among cultural influences and the ensuing resistance, assimilation, or adaptation of these elements. What emerges is the depiction of the evolution of identity, its definition in contemporary terms, and its differentiation from the status quo. There are both benefits and pitfalls to this new mode of filmmaking, which this paper will explore. It is however important to first describe the nuances of identity and differentiation, that becomes a defining force in the creation of motion pictures. Issues of identity and difference The driver for the depiction of cultural identity and its differentiation from Ã¢â¬Å"the otherÃ¢â¬ is born by a universal need for public recognition of the distinctiveness of societies. The desire to preserve identity in one form or another is in response to the challenges of multiculturalism and the politics of recognition in democratic societies. The cultural context is valued by individuals as among their basic interests, and their right to this is universal. The problem resides, however, is in the reconciliation of the conflicting content of the various valued cultures. This implies limits that must be placed on political recognition of particular cultures (Amy Gutmann, 1994: 3). In Liberal democracies, citizenship cannot be regarded as a comprehensive universal identit y, for the reasons that: (1) people are unique, self-creating, and creative individuals; and (2) people are also Ã¢â¬Å"culture-bearingÃ¢â¬ whose cultures differ depending on their past and present identifications (Amy Gutmann, 1994: 7). Citizenship, therefore, is a unifying and equalizing factor in terms of rights; it does not, however, erase cultural distinctiveness. The liberal value of diversity should not be associated with the nullification, but rather the expansion and preservation of the Ã¢â¬Å"cultural, intellectual, and spiritual horizons of all individuals,Ã¢â¬ enriching and exposing us to differing intellectual and cultural perspectives, allowing for growth, exploration and enlightenment (Amy Gutmann, 1994: 9) The problem of cultural homogenization and cultural heterogenization is that there exists the indigenization of new cultural influences as they are constantly introduced into mainstream society (Arjun Appadurai). The new global cultural economy may no longer be understood in terms of simple models involving centers and peripheries, but instead as Ã¢â¬Å"a complex, overlapping, disjunctive orderÃ¢â¬ . An elementary framework for exploring these disjunctures is suggested by Arjun Appadurai involves Ã¢â¬Å"five dimensions of global cultural flowÃ¢â¬ : (1) ethnoscapes; (2) mediascapes; (3) technoscapes; (4) finanscapes; and (5) ideoscapes. Each of these dimensions is a deeply imbued with historical, linguistic, and political context of nation-states, multinationals, diasporic communities (i.e., sharing common national or ethnic identity), and other such aggrupations. The five dimensions form the multiple worlds that are constituted by historically situated collective imaginations of persons and groups flung to various parts of the world (Appadurai, 2003). Deterritorialization generally is one of the major phenomena in contemporary times. It results from the mass movement of people of similar culture to other
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Popularity Of Air Travel Tourism Essay The Wright brothers penned their names down in history when they built the first airplane which flew for 12 seconds. Thirteen years later, in 1936; the first passenger aircraft was produced with a capacity of 21 passengers. Since then, commercial flying has become a reality. However, it was a harsh reality because only an elite group of rich people had access to this luxurious life. In 1971, the first low budget airline, American company Southwest was launched. With the introduction of budget airlines into the market, flying became available to people of every class in society. The demand for air travel skyrocketed and the industry flourished. Thus, it is safe to say that rather than causing harm to the environment by contributing to global warming, the industry brings huge benefits in economical and social aspects and its presence is very much needed and welcomed in the travel sector. Throughout this essay, the term airline industry will be more commonly used than the term budget airlines as low cost airlines only represent a small fraction of the airline industry, not the whole industry. By looking at the bigger picture of the entire aviation industry, the impacts of the industry can be evaluated at a larger scale. Therefore, the overall impact of airlines on the environment and its benefits will be discussed rather than the effects of budget airlines alone. This essay will also focus on the airborne environment which comes more in contact with airline industry. Beginning with the industrial revolution, air transport has gained popularity because it saves international travel time as transportation becomes a basic necessity. As a result, environmentalists argue that the airline industry no doubt highly contributes to carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere as one of the fastest-growing sectors given the extra boost from budget airlines. The Environmental Protection Agency shows that in 1997, the U.S. aviation emitted carbon dioxide which was roughly comparable to the carbon emissions of certain industrialised countries (General Accounting Office 2000). Carbon dioxide gas is emitted as a by product of the burning of aviation fuel. As the main greenhouse gas, excessive amount of emissions cause global warming to rise at an alarming state. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts the worldwide temperature to increase from 34.7 to 40.1 degrees between 1990 and 2100 (Bowe, Hartley OConnor 2004). The increase in Earths te mperature brings about a chain of events, such as ice sheets and glaciers thawing, sparking a rise in sea levels and successive coastal flooding. In addition, the occurrence of tropical infectious diseases might increase in moderate climates. On the other hand, it is affirmed by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) that the carbon dioxide vented by aircrafts actually only rationalise for a small 3.5 percent of the worldwide emission, even less by the budget carriers. This contrasts with 41 percent for other industrial sources and 23 percent for other transportation sources (General Accounting Office 2000). Moreover, aircraft experts are taking on the responsibility to minimise the negative impacts of aeroplanes. Giovanni Bisignani, director general of the IATA, claims commercial air travel has made much bigger steps in its environmental impact reduction than any other form of transport (Wastnage,J 2007), by using cleaner aircrafts, new fuels and introducing more sustai nable technologies. Thus, the industry cannot be solely accountable for global warming. On the contrary, airlines pose huge positive implications on the travel industry and economy as a whole. Low cost carriers pilot the industry to act as a catalyst for employment in other sectors such as tourism. A total of 7.7 million direct occupations in global tourism and 6.0 million indirect professions in sectors providing to tourism are estimated to be sustained by the spending of international tourists reaching by air, amounting to about USD 90 billion a year to global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) based on the Air Transport Action Groups (ATAG) report in 2008. Just as air travel is a vital component of tourism, tourism is in turn essential for economic growth. For example, in Africa, 25% of all tourism careers, an estimated 1.5 million occupations are supported by overseas visitors arriving via air (ATAG 2008). Giovanni Bisignani states in 2005 that tourism directly accounts for up to 50% of GDP in Pacific Air Travel Association (PATA) countries, and in Maldives, the sector ac counts for 80% of the economy. Hence, the sector holds a vital role in facilitating the growth of travel and tourism which are key factors in the increasingly globalised world economy. From a different perspective, this essay also takes into consideration a key group of stakeholder in the travel industry, the tourists themselves. Based on ATAGs 2008 report, travel and tourism provide substantial consumer welfare and social benefits. The existence of the air transport industry itself is a manifestation of consumer welfare where the demand to travel globally using a safe and fast mode of transportation is met. Looking beyond that, with budget airlines leading the way in making international travel readily accessible via cheaper tickets, a broader choice of holiday destinations are made available. As local standards of living improve, international air travel from India, China and other surfacing markets is raising swiftly (ATAG 2008). This means that tourists are no longer limited to regional holiday destinations. Travelling halfway around the globe becomes more common now than ever before. This provides freedom to travel and it facilitates the exchange of cultural a nd learning experiences. By being exposed to different cultures while abroad, many experiences are broadened while the understanding of other cultures increases. Both of these result in the improvement of quality of life and aid in better international integration. Moreover, the expansion of multicultural societies is supported when airlines, especially budget airlines provide an affordable mean for immigrants to visit their friends and family back home and vice versa. For that reason, inexpensive flights would ensure a raise in the quality of life. As a whole, while budget airlines and airlines do contribute to many environmental issues, the percentage to involvement is relatively small and according to Philip Murray Condit, former CEO of Boeing, it is the most environmentally friendly way to travel. Comparatively, the airline sector provides jobs for millions resulting in the rise of global economy. Socially, airlines induce the popularity of international travel and enhance cultural knowledge in order to foster better intergovernmental ties. Overall, budget airlines as part of the industry plays an active role in the society, generating profitable gains for everyone while planning ahead to reduce its negative impacts. Bottom line, the airline industry, not forgetting the budget airlines are meant to stay for years to come. (1111 words)
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
There are several controversial issues surrounding racial profiling and the various problems that are encountered as a result of it. One issue is whether or not racial profiling exists. Most law enforcement departments refuse to undergo a study and they deny that racial profiling exists. These problems, coupled with the status of literature regarding this topic at this point, are more unreliable than scientific. In addition, the topic is controversial because the United States believes that it has rid itself of prejudice and racism, and to open the topic of racial profiling by law enforcement personnel is admitting that its possible the nation is backsliding. As a result, the events of September 11th stepped up the pace of racial profiling by law enforcement and grew to include new groups of people. Racial profiling is a topic that is seen across the nation in the media. Racial profiling has often been referred to as the apparition occurrence because so far departments across the nation clearly deny its existence. The topic is a growing one in light of the September 11, 2001 attacks on America. Racial profiling has been a top news story since that attack but it was an issue for many years before that. The equal protection clause can be found in the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. It simply states that, Ã¢â¬Å"No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United StatesÃ¢â¬ ¦nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.Ã¢â¬ In other words, this meant that the Constitution would become Ã¢â¬Ëcolor-blindÃ¢â¬â¢. State laws would no longer be allowed to treat whites and blacks differently. The Supreme Court relied heavily upon the Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ doctrine to determine when a state law violated the equal protection clause. This is also how the Supreme Court would determine what is considered to be discrimination. In order to prove that a state is guilty of discrimination there must be an overwhelming amount of evidence supporting the claim. This was evident in the case of Washington vs. Davis, where the Court ruled against two blacks who claimed that the hiring practices of the D.C. Police Department were discriminatory towards racial minorities. The Supreme Court said that the hiring practices did not violate the EqualÃ Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Equal Protection is described as Ã¢â¬Å"the right of all persons to have the same access to the law and courts and to be treated equally by the law and courts, both in procedures and in the substance of the lawÃ¢â¬ . It is similar to the right to due process of law, but in particular applies to equal treatment as an aspect of fundamental fairness. The most famous case on this subject is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) in which Chief Justice Earl Warren, for a undivided Supreme Court, ruled that Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ educational facilities for blacks were essentially unequal and unconstitutional since the segregated school system did not give all students equal rights under the law. It will also apply to other inequalities such as difference in pay for the same work or unequal taxation. The principle is stated in the 14th Amendment to the Constitution: Ã¢â¬Å"No State shallÃ¢â¬ ¦deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.Ã¢â ¬ One of the hardest things to argue in this intense topic is whether or not it exists. There is not a law enforcement agency in the nation that has stepped up to the plate and acknowledged that it does indeed profile using racial criteria. It is something that New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Enforcement Department has been accused of over and over again, while the chiefs and mayors unwaveringly deny the rumors. It is something that the media use entire segments trying to prove with the cases that are claimed to have happened because of it (Colb, 2000). Numerous studies over the past few years have proven what many have known for decades: law enforcement agents at all levels consistently use race, ethnicity, national origin, and religion when choosing which individuals should be stopped and searched. Discriminatory racial profiling is a widely recognized problem in communities across the country. States are beginning to recognize the need to address this discriminatory practice. The practice of racial profiling occurs when law enforcement officers target suspects on the basis of race, national origin, ethnicity, or religion. Racial profiling is not just an issue of who gets stopped, butÃ why they are stopped, and how they are treated. In 1999, the federal government and New Jersey came to an exceptional agreement that state troopers would no longer use race as a factor in highway traffic stops. This agreement came about after an investigation of police records revealed that African Americans and Latinos drove three-fourths of the cars searched on state highways. One might wonder how police balance their enforcement knowledge against the potential for discrimination based on stereotyping, or whatÃ¢â¬â¢s commonly called Ã¢â¬Å"racial profilingÃ¢â¬ ? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a complex, provoking issue, but by starting to look at police training may help to figure out the source. For law-enforcement personnel, training and experience are critical. Training comes from many sources. It begins with the initial training academy, and continues with ongoing updates known as in-service training. Additional formal training happens when a field-training officer (a police officerÃ¢â¬â¢s first street partner) assists with law enforcementÃ¢â¬â¢s version of Ã¢â¬Å"on-the-job training.Ã¢â¬ Somewhere along the progression, Ã¢â¬Å"informalÃ¢â¬ training begins. It takes place anywhere and everywhere, and continues throughout a career. And just like in any job, officers learn to cut corners, streamline processes and get the job done. The end result can be a more efficient employee or one who omits necessary steps in the processes. On one front, police brutality occurs when an officer has difficulty judging the need to utilize force. An officerÃ¢â¬â¢s career depends on police-survival skills that can make the difference for continued existence. Knowing when to go for your gun or when to issue a verbal command is a learned skill. It requires good training, time on the job, and repeated exposure to incidents. Equally, a crucial part of this is the guidance and influence of senior officers, not to mention the officerÃ¢â¬â¢s own motivations of fear, physical abilities and the like. There are many factors that influence an officerÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions when it comes to discriminatory issues and law enforcement. The manor, in which an officer is socially experienced, in both professional and personal settings, plays a major role. Bringing about the stereotype of young African-American men asÃ criminals can come from both of these tracts. Like everyone else, police must unlearn this bias and judge people based on their actions alone. The big difference is that police, at times, have power over our freedom. Racial profiling of African-Americans and Latinos is rampant at all levels of law enforcement today. For example, approximately 72 percent of all routine traffic stops on an interstate in the Northeast were of African-American drivers, despite the fact that African-Americans make up only about 17 percent of the driving population, according to a study by the American Civil Liberties Union. In the aftermath of September 11, racial profiling of Arabs and South Asians has increased very much so. Since the terrorist attacks, individuals who appear to be of Arab or South Asian descent have been targeted for special inquiry. For example, many have been asked to leave airplanes for no reason other than their appearance. In the case of Arab look a likes on airplanes, many have been asked to remove their turbans, a violation of their religious practices. Few state or federal agencies collect data on the incidence of racial profiling. The U.S. Department of Justice only recently issued voluntary guidelines that states should follow, producing in 2000, A Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collection Systems. This document provides an overview of the nature of racial profiling, a description of data collection and its purpose, current activities in California, New Jersey, and North Carolina, and policy recommendations. Collecting accurate data is a critical first step toward eliminating the practice of racial profiling and bridging the lack of trust between law enforcement agencies and communities of color. Developing and implementing data collection systems will help to eliminate intentional and unintentional profiling and restore trust in law enforcement agencies. States that require law enforcement officials to collect information regarding the race, ethnicity, gender and age of each driver stopped by police will also help. The reporting requirements also include noting what actions (citation, warnings, tickets) were taken, and, if a vehicle search was conducted,Ã whether it was based upon consent, probable cause, or reasonable suspicion of a crime. The potential for abuse of power in most law enforcement departments exists for several reasons. Incorporated with the lack of literature regarding the topic at this point, most law enforcement departs refuse to undergo a study and they deny that racial profiling exists, the controversial issues in regards to prejudice and racism, and the added events of September 11th; racial profiling by law enforcement grew to include new groups of people. However, many police departments are aggressively addressing these issues with added training and stiffer sanctions for violating a citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s civil rights. Through the years, the learned patterns of criminality, real or perceived, have given us the institution of profiling. The unlearning of these patterns may take just as long.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
However, we did not jump right into the semester with enthusiasm and excitement. Our first lecture was on photography, although I am very interested in photography, this lecture was tedious. To see the slides that Stephen Puppeteers was presenting the lights had to be shut off, which made it very easy to doze off or have your mind be somewhere else. Despite the dark lecture hall and the dullness of Mr.. Pettifoggers voice, his photographs were incredible.His photographs ranged from beautiful breathtaking landscapes to people from developing countries with health robbers and lost limbs. The variety of his photos Is really what lured me In. I was fascinated. I had no Idea what I would be learning and experiencing throughout this semester when I signed up for this course. Even after I had had this first lecture and had attended my first discussion I still did not fully understand. As I wrote my first assignment, I babbled on and talked mostly about my past with music, still believing th is course would be all about music.Little did I know, I was all wrong. I attended ACH lecture and finally began to catch on that I would be learning something new and enjoyable every Wednesday. Each lecture after photography got more intriguing and interactive with the audience. This course by far had the most entertaining lectures, bringing students on stage to dance and act. But even after all of these lectures I was not prepared for the final lecture. This fall performance was unbelievable. It had me with goose bumps up and down my arms and legs.I could feel the beat of the drums through my whole body ND I automatically and unconsciously began swaying and tapping along to the beat. They immediately began pulling students from all over the lecture hall onto the stage and put some sort of instrument in their hand. Despite the fact that these students had never played such instruments they quickly picked up on them and joined in on the organized beat. Although this music was made up as It went along, and there were no written notes, it was still highly organized.The students knew they could not just play along to any beat they desired. There were still rules they had to abide by. As the stage continued on with their instruments, the audience was then engaged within the music with singing, clapping, dancing, and stomping. It was unreal. We all consolidated to actually compose our own beautiful music. Was amazed. The instructors some how managed to get every single person In that lecture hall participating In our freshly composed music. And from what I could see everyone seemed to be enjoying It Just as much as I was.It was a wonderful performance. It as by far the best performance all semester, as my teaching assistant informed us it woo a De. I am lucky to nave Eden addle to experience sun an event. Entering this course I did not have high expectations, it was only filling general education credits for me. However, now that I have successfully completed this c ourse it was certainly so much more. I am fortunate enough to have been able to take such a class that bestowed me with such in depth introductions to various forms of arts, from photography, theater, Jazz, classical, dance, and so much more.
Friday, November 8, 2019
History as mystery Prologue - page xv A dissenting view invites us to test the prevailing explanations and open ourselves to neglected ones. Through this clash of viewpoints we have a better chance of moving toward a closer approximation of historical truth. Dissidents (or revisionists, as they have been called) are not drifting with the mainstream but swimming against it, struggling against the prevailing range of respectable opinion. They are deprived of what Alvin Gouldner called "the background assumptions," the implicit, unexamined. but commonly embraced notions that invite self-confirming acceptance because of their conformity to what is already accepted as properly true. This established familiarity and unanimity of bias is frequently treated as "objectivity." For this reason dissidents are constantly having to defend themselves and argue closely from the evidence. In contrast, orthodoxy can rest on its own unstated axioms and mystifications, remaining heedless of marginalized critics who are denied a means of reaching mass audiences. Orthodoxy promotes its views through the unexamined repetition that comes with monopoly control of the major communication and educational systems. In sum, while dissidents can make mistakes of their own, they are less likely to go unchallenged for it. Not so with orthodoxy. It remains the most insidious form of ideology for it parades the dominant view as the objective one, the only plausible and credible one. *** p5 ... it is a matter of public record that a tiny portion of the population controls the lion's share of the wealth and most of the command positions of state, manufacturing, banking, investment, publishing, higher education, philanthropy, and media. And while not totally immune to popular pressures, these individuals exercise a preponderant influence over what is passed off as public information and democratic discourse. The ruling class is the politically active component of th... Free Essays on History As Mystery Free Essays on History As Mystery History as mystery Prologue - page xv A dissenting view invites us to test the prevailing explanations and open ourselves to neglected ones. Through this clash of viewpoints we have a better chance of moving toward a closer approximation of historical truth. Dissidents (or revisionists, as they have been called) are not drifting with the mainstream but swimming against it, struggling against the prevailing range of respectable opinion. They are deprived of what Alvin Gouldner called "the background assumptions," the implicit, unexamined. but commonly embraced notions that invite self-confirming acceptance because of their conformity to what is already accepted as properly true. This established familiarity and unanimity of bias is frequently treated as "objectivity." For this reason dissidents are constantly having to defend themselves and argue closely from the evidence. In contrast, orthodoxy can rest on its own unstated axioms and mystifications, remaining heedless of marginalized critics who are denied a means of reaching mass audiences. Orthodoxy promotes its views through the unexamined repetition that comes with monopoly control of the major communication and educational systems. In sum, while dissidents can make mistakes of their own, they are less likely to go unchallenged for it. Not so with orthodoxy. It remains the most insidious form of ideology for it parades the dominant view as the objective one, the only plausible and credible one. *** p5 ... it is a matter of public record that a tiny portion of the population controls the lion's share of the wealth and most of the command positions of state, manufacturing, banking, investment, publishing, higher education, philanthropy, and media. And while not totally immune to popular pressures, these individuals exercise a preponderant influence over what is passed off as public information and democratic discourse. The ruling class is the politically active component of th...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
How to Write Interview Questions The truth is that there is no single recipe for effective interviewing, no single format for all situations and tasks, no one right way of wording questions. However, there are some useful guidelines that should be considered. To prepare well-crafted questions, you need to understand the goal of the interview and what you need to know from the person youre interviewing. With this information in mind, it will be easier to create unique questions for your particular situation. Below youll find some great strategies and tips for coping with the assignment successfully. Start with a Ã¢â¬Å"Softball QuestionÃ¢â¬ Why is the first question so important? It should make the interviewee open, relaxed and eager to share the information youre interested in. A Ã¢â¬Å"softball questionÃ¢â¬ will create the right atmosphere and make the interview flow naturally. This question has to be very simple and uncontroversial, not challenging at all. It shouldnt require a lot of thought or risk to answer it. Thats why start your interview with this simple question to set the right tone for your conversation. Ask Open-Ended Questions To receive as much information as possible, you have to avoid Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ questions. Instead, always use open-ended questions. They will help you find out all you need for your story. Remember that your purpose is to create a dialogue, so its important to write the questions that require a full, not obvious answer. Proceed with a Reflection Question To learn how your interviewee thinks, you need to write reflection questions. This type of questions will make a person recollect and share some information or story with you. You can ask anything that will make a person look back: a career path, some important events, difficult life moments, etc. A reflection question is a great way to keep the conversation going. Ask Questions that Cause Emotional Response You need to write a few questions that cause the emotional response. Consider what can make your interviewee feel excited or annoyed. The emotional response shouldnt be only positive, thats why you can ask tricky questions. Start your questions with Ã¢â¬Å"whyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ to receive a full answer. For instance, you may ask something like Ã¢â¬Å"Why did you decide to start writing that book if the previous one didnt sell well?Ã¢â¬ Include a Curve Ball Question Now you have to look at the questions youve written. If there are too many similar ones, consider adding a curve ball. This question can be a fun and interesting adding to the general story. Ask something unrelated to the whole conversion to spice it with interesting information. Paraphrase Your Questions When youve finished writing all the questions, look them over and decide which ones should be paraphrased. Make sure that your questions are clear and understandable. If you feel that some of them become irrelevant, consider to replace them with the more suitable questions. Throughout all phases of writing, keep centered on the purpose of your interview. It will help you come up with the right questions. You may need to do a research on the person you are going to interview to gather all the information before writing questions. Knowing the persons goals, personality, achievements and failures will help you write really good questions. Remember that there is no one right way of interviewing, thats why try to write interesting questions for your appropriate situation and create a pleasant and engaging dialogue with your interviewee.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Religious Coexistence in Israel Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Religious Coexistence in Israel - Research Paper Example On the other hand, the Jews draw their inheritance from the Hebrews and Israelites. Arabs and Jews have a long history of contact between each other from various periods: Hebrew, Assyrian, Babylonian, Roman, Byzantine, and Persian eras. And even during the rise of the Islam religion during the 7th and 8th centuries, Arabs and Jews continued to co-exist in extensive geographical domains from Morocco to some parts of China (16; De Lange 143). After many centuries have passed, another two religious groups cropped up in Israel, which further proved that religious co-existence is possible in Israel, and even in America. Today, the Christian denomination and the Druze population continue to peacefully co-exist with the Arabs and the Jews. Reiteratively, religious co-existence can progress in Israel. The Jewish Population The population of the Jews is scattered between Israel and the Western World. Majority of the citizens of Israel are Jewish, and a large proportion of this population prac tices Judaism. And despite the gradual and continuous rise of the Arab population, the Jews remain progressive even in the midst of the issue of religious co-existence (Stillman 91). The focus of this paper is bent on the Israeli Jews who are residing in the state of Israel. Israel, a Jewish state, is home to nearly 50% of worldÃ¢â¬â¢s total Jewish population. ... ignificant Israeli-Jew population that is spread between the Haredi and Hilonim Jewish civilizations employ the adherence to secular way of life, thereby contributing further to the religious diversity of the Jewish population in Israel (Scherman 17; Halper 32). In a recent survey conducted by Pittinsky et al. (2), the Jews manifest positive outlook on having to religiously co-exist with Arabs (Steiner and Berkley 129). While there is no reference to other religious groups such as the Christian denomination and the Druze population, 73% of the Jewish citizens expressed affirmative opinion of religious co-existence, with 57.5% who agree and 15.5% tends to agree (2). The Muslim Population As aforementioned, the Arab (Muslim) population has a long history of contact with the Jews; nevertheless, not too much with the Christians and the Druze, at least, in Israel. Jerusalem is the area of concentration for Muslims in Israel (Abu-Nimer 166; Lerner 12). As a matter of fact, Mount Moriah, wh ich is in Israel, is the location of Jewish temples and Islam temples. This is only one of the many indications of how the religious co-existence between the Jewish and Muslim populations progressed for so many years (Lewis 28; Hillman 27). Majority of the Muslims in Israel are Sunni Arabs. Their domination supported and assured the importance and meaning of Islam as the leading religion in the region (Abu-Nimer 166; Lewis 52). The capture of the Palestine by the British people and the ensuing Balfour Declaration paved the way for the influx of a considerable population of Jews in the Palestine who commenced to incline the balance toward Judaism (Kadushin 203; Steinberg 36). In the recent decades, a more progressive development graced the state as Muslims in Israel were allowed to implement
Friday, November 1, 2019
Disability Definitions Analysis - Research Paper Example IDEA defines what these disabilities are, and who is eligible to receive education based on their unique needs. This paper will look into some of the descriptions of the disabilities under the IDEA, and what characteristics and features are in place to identify these individual needs. Learning disability: Under the IDEA, this is a disorder where normal psychological processes involved in the using of language, or understanding are able to manifest in a manner that fosters an imperfect inability to either think or listen. In the IDEA definition, there is the inclusion of conditions that count as learning disabilities. These include: brain injury the student may have, brain dysfunction, dyslexia (reading disability), and/or perceptual disabilities (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2001). However, learning difficulties, for example, emotional disturbance and economic disadvantages, do not fall under this definition. Mental retardation: Under IDEA, this is the lack of cognitive abilities. This means that these individuals face limitations when it comes to social skills, taking care of themselves, and issues with communication. Students with mental retardation are typically slower than the rest of the students. These cognitive disabilities render the student much slower when it comes to speech. They also have problems taking care of their personal needs while in school (Burns, 2006). Emotional behavioural disturbance: Under the IDEAÃ¢â¬â¢s definition, it is a condition that renders a child with sub average intellectual functioning. This is a disability that cannot be explained by health or intellectual factors. The presence of some factors over a long period might indicate that a student is incapable of maintaining a steady educational environment. Deficits in adaptive behaviour, according to the act, affect the child, hence affecting their educational environment (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2007). In learning disabilities, there are no factors that affect the student from the
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Sarcophagus Relief Depicting Labors of Hercules - Essay Example Thesis statement: In the sculpture Sarcophagus Relief Depicting Labors of Hercules, the unknown artist portrays the deep relationship between Roman mythology and the growth and development of Roman sculpture during 3rdÃ¢â¬â4th century A.D. Background As pointed out, the artist behind the sculpture Sarcophagus Relief Depicting Labors of Hercules (see Appendix-1), is still unknown. But this ambiguity related to the sculpture does not reduce its scope within the scenario or art because it represents the Roman society during 3rd-4th century A.D. The sarcophagus relief sheds light into the social setting in Rome during 3rdÃ¢â¬â4th century A.D. Generally, sarcophagus relief works are used to decorate the tombs of the elite class in the society. One can see that the myth of Hercules or Heracles was popular among the people in ancient Roman Empire. So, this sculpture can be considered as a visual example for the usage of mythical characters in sculpture. This sculpture is preserved and displayed at the Honolulu Academy of Arts, which is in Hawaii. Besides, this sculpture was contributed by Anna Rice Cooke (say, the founder of the Academy of Arts/museum). So, one can see that the sculptureÃ¢â¬â¢s background is interconnected with the Roman society, mythology and culture. Source The unknown artist made use of the Greco-Roman myth of Hercules. To be specific, the theme of this sculpture is interconnected with the labors of Hercules. In the Greco-Roman mythology, Hercules is portrayed as a mythical figure, powerful enough to complete impossible labors. One can see that HerculesÃ¢â¬â¢s deeds were popular among the Romans and the artists began to make use of the same as their theme. The popularity of HerculesÃ¢â¬â¢s labors represents the Roman interest in hero worship and this is cunningly portrayed in the sculpture. In the sculpture, the artist portrays two of the deeds fulfilled by Hercules. For instance, the first figure in the sculpture is symbolic of Hercule sÃ¢â¬â¢s fight with hydra (say, a multi-headed creature). Ã¢â¬Å"Hercules had to kill the many-headed hydra (HYE-druh) for his second taskÃ¢â¬ .1 The second figure in the sculpture is symbolic of HerculesÃ¢â¬â¢s battle with the Erymanthian Boar (say, a giant creature). From a different angle of view, the position of Hercules in the sculpture is symbolic of hard labor. Besides, the seriousness that can be seen in the face of Hercules is symbolic of heroism and hard labor. Origin As pointed out, origin of the work Sarcophagus Relief Depicting Labors of Hercules is related to Roman culture and its relation with mythology and hero worship. One can see that the sculpture represents the Roman interest in the immortality of art. Besides, the usage of marble as the medium of sculpture proves the development of sculpture works during 3rd-4th century A.D. On the other side, one cannot neglect the fact that the decline of Roman Empire reduced the further development of Roman art and arch itecture. Still, some of the sculptures during 3rd-4th century A.D. are preserved in different museums. So, this sculpture is historically important because it represents the rich heritage of Roman culture. Besides, this sculpture was contributed to the Honolulu Academy of Arts, by Anna Rice Cooke (say, in the year 1932). The authorities at the Honolulu Academy of Arts show utmost interest to preserve and restore this sculpture. In addition, ArtafterDark (say, a volunteer group) at the Honolulu A
Monday, October 28, 2019
Mesolithic Religions Essay Prior to this time in human existence people did not practice an organized form of religion. Everything was considered sacred and and there were no gods being worshiped. All this began to change in the Mesolithic time period. A shift in culture is evidenced by the building of the Stone Temple at Urfa. Up until this point in time, humans lived a mostly hunter gather lifestyle. People would have followed the herds of animals and lived off the land as they came to it, moving on once the resources were all used up. With the advent of the Stone Temple signaled a new way of life. With people needing to eat while the temple was being built and later when they came to worship, humans began practicing farming, herding, and hunting. With these new roles humans had a shift in thought from just passing through living on the land to masters of the land with the ability to own it and change it as needed. This new thought led to a shift in religious practices. Mesolithic people now began to see the world from the perspective that mankind had control over prosperity through religious practices. Herders could sacrifice some of the herd to a god to ensure the herd continued to grow. A farmer needing to have a good crop would have sacrificed people, fasted, or engaged in ritualistic sex. Much of this is evidenced by the artifacts that have been uncovered and the stories that have survived from the Mesolithic time. At the site of Urfa wild forms of the first domesticated plants and animals have been found. Inside the ruins animal bones were uncovered suggesting animal sacrifice may have taken place in there. The giant stone pillars have carvings in them one being a woman in a sexual pose that may suggest a room for ritualistic sex. The story of the first family illustrates some of the mentality of the time period. In the story two of the sons, representing farming and herding, gather to sacrifice. The herder sacrifices an animal while the farmer sacrifices some plants. The plants are rejected. Leaving the farmer to find another way to sacrifice which in the story is illustrated by him killing his brother. The third type of person, the hunter, is absent during all this suggesting the hunter still clung to the old ways and may have disapproved of the new religious thought. The hunter may have been the one telling the story, which is why the story has a negative tone.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Petroleum products are used widely in our everyday lives. They are used to power automobiles produce containers and to keep us warm. Petroleum, or crude oil is liquid composed of various organic chemicals. It is found in large quantities below the surface of Earth and is used as a fuel and as a raw material in the chemical industry. The word petroleum comes from the two Latin words Ã¢â¬Å"petroÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"leumÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"petroÃ¢â¬ meaning rock and Ã¢â¬Å"leumÃ¢â¬ meaning oil. The chemical composition of all petroleum is principally hydrocarbons which are a family of organic compounds, composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen. Petroleum is formed under EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface by the decomposition of organisms. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The remains of tiny organisms that live in the sea are trapped with the sands and silts that settle to the bottom in sea basins. These deposits become the source rocks for the generation of crude oil. The process began many millions of years ago with the development of abundant life, and it continues to this day. The sediments grow thicker and sink into the seafloor under their own weight. As additional deposits pile up, the pressure on the ones below increases several thousand times, and the temperature rises by several hundred degrees. The mud and sand harden into shale and sandstone and the remains of the dead organisms are transformed into crude oil and natural gas. Surface deposits of crude oil have been known to humans for thousands of years. In the areas where they occurred, they were long used for limited purposes, such as caulking boats, waterproofing cloth, and fueling torches. By the time the Renaissance began in the 14th century, some surface deposits were being distilled to obtain lubricants and medicinal products, but the real exploitation of crude oil did not begin until the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution had by then brought about a search for new fuels, and the social changes it effected had produced a need for good, cheap oil for lamps; people wished to be able to work and read after dark. Once petroleum forms, it flows upward in EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust because it has a lower density than the brines that saturate the interstices of the sands and carbonate rocks that constitute the crust of Earth. The crude oil and natural gas rise into the pores of the coarser sediments lying above. For several years people had known that wells drilled for water and salt were occasionally infiltrated by petroleum, so the concept of drilling for crude oil itself soon followed.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
The Role of Hatshepsut as a female pharaoh throughout the 18th Dynasty in Egyptian society was vital for the ultimate construction of Egypt as a major imperial power and the overall greatness of Egypt. HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign from 1503 BCE to 1482 BCE was one of the most prosperous periods for ancient Egyptian society, the role of Hatshepsut saw a time of great prosperity for the economy and architecture furthermore it was a time of advancement in the arts and of great peace. The great reign of Hatshepsut lasted for twenty-two years, and paved the way for Thutmosis III, who was able to engage in the repossession of the throne. The effective transition from the reign of Hatshepsut to Thutmosis enabled Thutmosis to initiate campaigns of conquest in the East of Egypt, which inturn lead to the establishment of a successful Egyptian Empire. Hatshepsut contributed significantly to the construction of great monuments, temples statues and also other architectural masterpieces, these offerings to Egyptian society again contributed to the greatness of not only ancient Egypt itself but also to the greatness of Hatshepsut and her success as a female pharaoh. Historian David Bediz elaborates that although other female rulers both preceded and followed her, HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s long and prosperous rule made her one of the greatest female rulers of all time; Ã¢â¬Å"She ruled the most powerful, advanced civilisation in the world, successfully for twenty yearsÃ¢â¬ ¦. Her success stands for all eternity. Ã¢â¬ The architecture of Hatshepsut was quite unique in a sense that she left her own mark on traditional Egyptian architecture. Historian Naville was quoted Ã¢â¬Å"The works of art from her reign, display the imprint of an individual novel taste, which must be none other than that of the divine being who occupied the Horus-throneÃ¢â¬ (Naville, 1906) Hatshepsut brought stability to the nation. But by far her defining achievement was her temple at Der-el Bahri known rightfully as the Ã¢â¬Å"sublime of sublimesÃ¢â¬ (Monet, 1968: p. 23). The construction of the temple took place between 1498 BC to 1483 BC. The following inscription from Der-el Bahri exemplifies her achievement Ã¢â¬Å"When you rest in your building where your beauties are worshipped, Amun Ra, the Lord of the Thrones of the Two Lands, give Hatshepsut life, duration and happiness. For she has made this building fine, great, pureÃ¢â¬ (Der el Bahri inscription in www. touregypt. net 18/5/04). Her temple would become her defining achievement that in term characterised HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign. HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s architectural achievements were the defining characteristic of her reign and therefore were her most important contribution to the greatness of Egypt. Additionally, by Hatshepsut investing money into the beautification of her country, it allowed for a politically stable environment which in term would eventually help Thutmosis III. Although Architecture was HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s defining achievement without a flourishing economy it would not have been possible. HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign was phenomenal in the sense that her contribution to the economy by endeavours in trade and foreign relations. This contributed to Egypt becoming a wealthy nation with unrivalled economic power. Her consolidation and injections into the economy would inevitably become the foundation that allowed Thutmosis III to undertake military campaigns of large scale. Naville reiterates the proposed ideas Ã¢â¬Å"her government must have been at once strong and enlightened, for when her nephew Thutmosis III succeeded her, the country was sufficiently powerful and rich to allow him to venture on a succession of war of conquestsÃ¢â¬ (Naville, 1906,). Under Queen HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign, trade with foreign countries was expanded, not only with the African lands to the south, but also with the Levant and the islands of the sea. The Queen decided to strengthen the relationships with friendly nations and let hostile Asiatic nations be punished for their ignorance and arrogance. Relations with Byblos flourished again and the turquoise mines of Sinai were reopened. Furthermore Timber from the land of Negau was imported and envoys to the southern land negotiated the trade of metals and precious commodities such as panther and elephants skins with the inhabitants of the Libyan coast. As quoted by Redforde upon HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s trade bolstering Ã¢â¬Å"Hatshepsut was not blind to the need of bolstering EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Running a close second to the building program were the economic measures, taken by the Queen. Trade with foreign countries was furtheredÃ¢â¬ (Redforde,1967:p. 87). Under Hatshepsut, the state owned the majority of land. The following extract quoted by Spalinger epitomises her reorganisation of Egypt Ã¢â¬Å"From persons who controlled and worked parcels of property the state collected taxes in the form of cattle, grain, wine and other goods the land yielded. Adding to Egypt vast internal revenues was tribute paid from outside. Ã¢â¬ (Spalinger, 1978) The expedition to Punt characterised HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign and personified her internal glory policy. Queen Hatshepsut sent five Phoenician styled ships on a trade expedition that would distill luxuries unparalleled upon Egypt. An inscription from Der el Bahri gives insight on the expedition Ã¢â¬Å"The loading of the ships heavily with marvels of the country of Punt, all godly fragrant woodÃ¢â¬â¢s of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Land, myrrh resin, with fresh myrrh trees, with ebony and pure ivoryÃ¢â¬ ¦ with green gold of Euni, with cinnamon wood, incense, eye cosmetics, with apes, monkeys, dogs and with skins of the southern panther, with natives and their childrenÃ¢â¬ (Der el Bahri inscription in Williams, 1994). HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to the Egyptian economy was so important that it allowed the rest of the Pharaohs of the eighteenth dynasty unrivalled and unlimited economic power. HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s internal development and building programs bought political stability to Egypt and thus allowed way for Thutmosis IIIÃ¢â¬â¢s conquests this and unrivalled economic prowess. Although Hatshepsut prioritized internal development and economic endeavours she was proud of the state of readiness of her army HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s military exploits, although miniscule compared to that of former and future pharaohs who pursued an expansionistic militaristic imperialism policy, contributed to the greatness of Egypt. A naive perspective of HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign would express that she undertook no military campaigns and exercised no military prowess but as quoted by Reforde Ã¢â¬Å"clearly that the belief that Hatshepsut undertook no foreign wars is simply untrueÃ¢â¬ (Redforde, 1967). Although Hatshepsut didnÃ¢â¬â¢t pursue an expansionistic militaristic imperialism policy and expand EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s boarders there were two probable reasons for this; she was a women and thus found it rather inconvenient to lead an army of men in the field and secondly the world situation did not call for the use of exceptional military force during her lifetime. Furthermore it could be said that military prowess was not a reflection of political ability and so being that HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign brought olitical stability rather the extension of boarders The military had an important role in HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s designs for rebuilding Egypt, she rigidly maintained that Ã¢â¬Å"my troops which were unequipped are well paid since I appeared as KingÃ¢â¬ (Hatshepsut in Redforde,1967). Hatshepsut in her reign undertook at least four campaigns and of one she led in person, although two were lead by her nominal ruler Thutmosis III under her name. HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s four campaigns consi sted of a campaign against Nubia, a mopping up operation in Palestine and Syria and the capture of Gaza and an additional campaign against Nubia both lead by Thutmosis III. Spalinger addresses this matter Ã¢â¬Å"Thutmosis III in the latter of HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign lead two campaigns under her nameÃ¢â¬ (Spalinger, 1978). The Nubian campaign that Hatshepsut undertook was a success proving her military prowess and capable leadership, the following graffito depicts her campaign Ã¢â¬Å"I followed the good god, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Makare, may she live! I saw when she overthrew the Nubian bowmen and when their chiefs were brought to him as living captives, I saw when he razed Nubia, I being in her majestyÃ¢â¬â¢s followingÃ¢â¬ (graffito in Arkell,1961). At the time of Hatshepsut the Egyptian army was a well organised and highly professional force, this then allowed Thutmosis III able soldiers for his campaigns. Therefore HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign is perceived as peaceful, conservative and isolationist and is often criticized but her reign embodies all the elements of a successful military ruler whose main focus was upon internal development. The construction of Egypt as a major imperial power was due to HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to the greatness of Egypt. Under her reign architecture and the economy flourished. Which allowed for a politically stable environment and unparalleled economic strength from which Thutmosis III used as his launching pad for his conquests. Her military prowess although never forcefully exerted was present. Her reign allowed the best imperialist expansion policy Egypt had under Thutmosis. Therefore HatshepsutÃ¢â¬â¢s reign had the most important contributions to Egyptian greatness than any other of the 18th Dynasty rulers, this mostly is own to her remarkable internal development policies of trade and commerce.